Ophthalmic advices:Refractive problems

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The refractive error visual approach cause errors resulting in a loss of vision, this being blurred. The images reach the eye with rays of light passing through the cornea, the lens and are projected on the retina, the back of the eye to allow viewing. Refractive errors occur when images are not properly projected for large or too short, or abnormal eye cornea and as a result the person sees less. Refractive problems are not necessarily a common ailment in the eye and can be treated. The types of refractive problems are myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism.

Myopia

Myopia and lens correction

The myopia is a condition of refraction in which near objects appear correctly but distant objects appear blurry.

In myopic patients are some common problems of the eyes, especially the retina, the most serious tears or retinal detachments among others. It is very important to do a careful ophthalmological follow and be aware of changes in vision.

Cause

It is too elongated eye or a cornea of the normal curve. The light passes into the eye through the cornea and lens to the retina projecting end. In myopia the image is projected before reaching the retina because the eye is very large, so you get the picture out of focus and vision is blurred.

There's more risk for hereditary myopia issues, people with myopia in the family are more likely to develop. It is also often associated with activities at close range. In most cases begins in childhood and evolves with the growth, at age 20 tends to stabilize. Myopia is very common and affects 30% of the population.

In some important cases of myopia eye growth does not stop and keeps progressing myopia, this condition is called high myopia. The functioning of the retina deteriorates and vision may be affected gradually or abruptly. In these patients there is a higher risk of retinal degeneration and appearance of neovascular membranes.

Symptoms

The discomfort may present with low vision have difficulty seeing far away, discomfort in vision, headaches and even eye deviation (strabismus), lazy eye (amblyopia). It is especially important in children suspect to provide adequate correction and promote good eye development, especially where there are close books or computer screens, have difficulty seeing the blackboard at school or look forced.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of myopia is a complete eye examination with refraction test.

Treatment

Treatment involves correcting refractive errors; using glasses, contact lenses or surgery. Myopia can not be treated as such because it is related to the size of the eye. Lenses are typically thicker at the edges and make the eye look smaller than it really is. The use of lenses can be very dependent. In the treatment of refractive surgery to have a better visual quality and be more independent of the use of lenses can be used.

Hyperopia

Hyperopia and lens correction

The hyperopia or hypermetropia, commonly known as being farsighted (American English) or longsighted (British English), is a condition of refraction in which distant objects appear correctly but close objects appear blurry or difficult to approach them.

In hyperopic patients are some common eye problems, especially glaucoma. It is very important to do a careful ophthalmological follow and be aware of changes in vision.

Cause

The cause of hyperopia eye is too short or a flatter than normal cornea. The light passes into the eye through the cornea and lens to the retina projecting end. In hyperopia the image is projected after reaching the retina because the eye is very small, so you get the picture out of focus and vision is blurred.

There's more risk for hereditary issues hyperopia, hyperopic persons in the family are more likely to develop. In most cases begins in childhood and decreases with growth. At birth the eye is smaller and there is a degree of hyperopia to be corrected with eye growth.

Symptoms

The discomfort may present with low vision with difficulty seeing up close, discomfort in vision, headaches and even eye deviation (strabismus), lazy eye (amblyopia). Most patients with hyperopia often found either in youth, because they compensate poor near vision with an effort of accommodation, however, involves a degree of muscle tension and fatigue. Therefore problems are common in hyperopic eyestrain. It is important to be a good little correction though graduation.

The constant accommodation of the eye muscles can cause headache and fatigue or eye redness. Sometimes patients tend to tarry rubbing his eyes. It is especially important in children suspect to provide adequate correction and promote good eye development. It is important to perform regular eye examinations to correct the changes and adapt graduation.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of hyperopia is a complete eye examination with refraction test.

Treatment

Treatment for hyperopia is based on correcting refractive errors; using glasses, contact lenses or surgery. Hyperopia can not be treated as such because it is related to the size of the eye. The lenses make the eye look bigger than it really is. In the treatment of refractive surgery for better visual quality and be more independent of the use of lenses can be used.

Astigmatism

The astigmatism is a condition of refraction in which the clear focus of both near and distant objects is difficult. You can file jointly so with myopia and hyperopia.

Cause

The result is an eye with a problem in the curvature of the cornea, which is irregular in its axes. The cornea is a spherical surface, corneal astigmatism is more oval, which changes the curvature of the axis of the eye and the image obtained is blurred and distorted. The light passes into the eye through the cornea and lens to the retina projecting end. In astigmatism the image is projected on different axes irregular, so you get the picture out of focus and vision is blurred.

There is more risk of astigmatism by hereditary issues, people with astigmatism in the family are more likely to develop. In most cases begins in childhood and is changing with the growth. It may also be related to trauma, pterygium, disease or eye surgery (such as corneal transplant).

Symptoms

The most common nuisance is blurred vision and distorted images, the distance vision may be lower and distortions may appear in the change of vision from far to near. The details of both distance and near are often worse. There may be headaches muscle accommodative effort to compensate.

Diagnosis

The diagnosis of astigmatism is a complete eye examination with refraction test.

Treatment

Treatment for astigmatism is based on correcting the refractive error, either lenses or special contact lenses or surgery. In the treatment of refractive surgery for better visual quality laser corneal or incisions in the cornea (keratotomies) in special cases or other refractive errors can be used may be considered lens surgery using toric intraocular lenses.